To protect our Wildlife we must conserve our Wilderness and for our Wilderness to be meaningful our Wildlife must be able to roam free within it.
List of Publications

Refereed contributions
  • Kittle, A.M., Anderson, M., Avgar, T., Baker, J.M., Brown, G.S., Hagens, J., Iwachewski, I., Moffatt, S., Mosser, A., Patterson, B.R., Reid, D.E.B., Rodgers, A.R., Shuter, J., Street, G.M., Thompson, I.D., Vander Vennen, L.M.. & Fryxell, J.M. 2017. Landscape-level wolf space use is correlated with prey abundance, ease of mobility, and the distribution of prey habitat.Ecosphere 8(4):
  • Bukombe, J., Kittle, A.M., Senzota, R.B., Mduma, S., Fryxell, J.M., & Sinclair, A.R.E. 2017. Resource preferences and seasons influence spatial distribution of ungulates in the western Serengeti National Park. African Journal of Ecology
  • Kittle, A.M., Watson, A.C., & T.S.P. Fernando. 2017. The ecology and behaviour of a protected area Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya) population. Tropical Ecology 58(1): pages 71-86.
  • Hudson, L.N. et al. 2017. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project.Ecology and Evolution 7(1):145-188
  • Kittle, A.M., P.H.S.C. Kumara, D.G. Pathirathna, H.K.N. Sanjeewani, H.T.J. Seneviratne, and A.C. Watson. 2016. A comparison of floral and faunal diversity between two small, disturbed forest patches in Sri Lanka’s Central Highlands. WildLanka 4(3):133-141 
  • Kittle, A.M.,A.C. Watson, S.A. Cushman and D.W. Macdonald. 2016. The ecological and economic value of natural forests in relation to the Sri Lankan leopard. In: International Research Symposium Proceedings for Valuation of Forest Ecosystems and their Services, October 18, 2016. The Ministry of Mahaweli Development and Environment, Sri Lanka. 
  • Kittle, A.M., Bukombe, J.K., Sinclair, A.R.E., Mduma, S.A.R. & Fryxell, J.M. 2016. Landscape-level movement patterns by lions in western Serengeti: comparing the influence of inter-specific competitors, habitat attributes and prey availability. Movement Ecology4(17).
  • Mukherjee, S., Duckworth, J.W., Silva, A., Appel, A. & Kittle, A. 2016. Prionailurus rubiginosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: IUCN.UK.2016
  • Watson, A.C. 2015. Distribution and Resource Selection of an Endangered Apex Carnivore Across Its Island Range- the Leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya) in Sri Lanka. M.Sc. thesis, Biodiversity, Wildlife and Ecosystem Health, Departments of Biological, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • Bukombe, J., Senzota, R.B., Fryxell, J.M., Kittle, A.M., Kija, H., Hopcraft, J.G.C., Mduma, S. & Sinclair, A.R.E. 2015. Do animal size, seasons and vegetation type influence detection probability and density estimates of Serengeti ungulates? African Journal of Ecology 54(1):29-38.
  • McGreer, M.T., Mallon, E.E., Vander Vennen, L.M., Wiebe, P.A., Baker, J.A., Brown, G.S., Avgar, T.,Hagens, J., Kittle, A.M., Mosser, A., Street, G.M., Reid, D.E.B., Rodgers, A.R., Shuter, J., Thompson, I.D., Turetsky, M.J., Newmaster, S.G., Patterson, B.R. & Fryxell, J.M. 2015. Selection for forage and avoidance of risk by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) at coarse and local scales. Ecosphere 6(12):art288.
  • Kittle, A.M., Anderson, M., Avgar, T., Baker, J.M., Brown, G.S., Hagens, J., Iwachewski, I., Moffatt, S., Mosser, A., Patterson, B.R., Reid, D.E.B., Rodgers, A.R., Shuter, J., Street, G.M., Thompson, I.D., Vander Vennen, L.M.. & Fryxell, J.M. 2015. Wolves adapt territory size, not pack size to local habitat quality. Journal of AnimalEcology 84(5):1177 – 1186.
  • Avgar, T., Baker, J.M., Brown, G.S., Hagens, J.,Kittle, A.M., Mallon, E.E., McGreer, M., Mosser, A., Newmaster, S.G., Patterson, B.R., Reid, D.E.B., Rodgers, A.R., Shuter, J., Street, G.M., Thompson, I.D., Turetsky, M., Wiebe, P.A. & Fryxell, J.M. 2015. Space-use behavior of woodland caribou based on cognitive movement model. Journal of Animal Ecology 84(4): 1059 – 1070.
  • Fryxell, J.M., Avgar, T., Mosser, A.,Kittle, A., Street, G., McGreer, M., Mallon, E., Thompson, I.D., Rodgers, A.R., Patterson, B., Brown, G.S., Reid, D. & Turetsky, M.R. 2014. Space use patterns and trophic interactions among woodland caribou, wolves, and moose across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient. 99th ESA Annual Convention, Conference Paper, August 2014.
  • Kittle, A.M. and A.C. Watson (2008). Panthera pardus ssp. kotiya. In: IUCN 2012. 2012 IUCN Red Listof Threatened Species Version 2014.2 <www.iucnredlist.org>
  • Bukombe, J, Kittle, A.M., Mneney, P,  Machoke, M. Year. A Preliminary Survey of Alien Invasive Plant Species in Serengeti: A Call for Prompt Preventive Action. In:  Proceedings of the 8th TAWIRI Scientific Conference 6th to 8th December 2011.  Arusha,Tanzania, Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute.
  • Kittle, A. M. 2007.   The impact of wolf predation risk on resource selection at different scales by three sympatric ungulates. M.Sc. thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  • Kittle, A.M. and Watson, A.C. 2002.   Home range, demography and behaviour of the Sri Lankan leopard ( Panthera pardus kotiya ) in Ruhuna (Yala) National Park – Block 1.   Department of Wildlife Conservation (DWLC) and Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Sri Lanka. Pgs. 1-68.


Oral Conference presentations
  • Watson, A.C., A.M. Kittle.2016. Determining Occupancy, Abundance and Population Structure of an Endangered Apex Predator, The Sri Lankan Leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya), In country Ruffords Conference, Kandy, Sri Lanka, November 14-16th,  2016.
  • Kittle, A.M., Fryxell, J.M. and Patterson, B. 2013. Predator space use at the landscape level: do wolves select for prey abundance or prey habitat? Canadian Society for Ecology and Evolution, Annual Meeting, Kelowna, B.C. May 12-15, 2013.  
  • Bukombe, J.K., Kittle, A.M., Mneny, P. and Mwita, M.   2011. A preliminary survey of alien invasive plant species in Serengeti National Park (SNP): A call for prompt preventative action. Presentation at 5 th Annual Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute Conference, Arusha, Tanzania December 2011.


Selected non-refereed contributions
  • Kittle, A.M. and Watson, A.C. 2014.   Baseline wildlife surveys of Northern Sri Lanka. Loris, Wildlife Conservation Society of Sri Lanka, Accepted for publication in 2013.
  • Kittle, A.M. and Watson, A.C. 2009. Central Highland mid-year progress report for the Department of Wildlife Conservation (DWC). The Leopard Project, The Wilderness & Wildlife Conservation Trust
  • Kittle, A. M. 2009.   Tracking the Lankan leopard.   The Sunday Times, May 10, 2009.
  • Kittle, A.M. and Watson, A.C. 2007.   How many leopards are in Sri Lanka? :   An estimate from field investigations for the IUCN’s global Red Listing. The Leopard Project, The Wilderness & Wildlife Conservation Trust.
  • Kittle, A.M. and Watson, A.C. 2005. Status report of the Sri Lankan Leopard:   CITES Convention 2005. Commissioned by the Department of Wildlife Conservation (DWLC), Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  • Kittle, A.M. and Watson, A.C. 2004.   Home range, demography and behaviour of the Sri Lankan montane zone leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya) – Study site #1 Hantane range: Dunumadallawa forest reserve. Report for the Department of Wildlife Conservation (DWLC) and Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Sri Lanka.   Pgs.   1-23.  
  • Kittle, A.M. and Watson, A.C. 2004.   An introduction to the behaviour and ecology of the leopards of Yala.   Pp:   42-46 in Leopards and other wildlife of Yala (de Silva Wijeyeratne, G. ed.).   Jetwing Research Initiative, Colombo.
  • Kittle, A. M. and Watson, A. C. 2004.   Rusty-spotted Cat in Sri Lanka. Cat News.   No. 40:17-20.
  • Watson, A.C. and Kittle, A.M. 2004.   Distribution and Status of the Sri Lankan Leopard – A Short Report. Cat News.   No. 41: 12-15.
  • Kittle, A. M. and Watson, A. C. 2003.   Leopard poaching in Sri Lanka.   Loris Vol.22, issue 7 (Journal of the Wildlife and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka).


Student theses (A. Kittle external advisor)
  • Wickramarachchi, A.H. 2013. Estimation of economic value of Panthera pardus kotiya. BSc. thesis, Department of Forestry & Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Jayewardenepura. 
  • Pathirathna, D.G. 2012. Identification and comparison of cat species present and indication of their prey species in Duckwari forest and Horton Plains National Park. BSc. thesis, Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya.
  • Seneviratne, H.T.J. 2012. Biodiversity of forest fragments in the central highlands: A comparison between an isolated forest fragment (Dunumadallawa) and one in close proximity to a large protected area (Duckwari). BSc. thesis, Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya.
  • Sanjeewani, H.K.N. 2010. Determining the abundance of  prey available to leopards in a mid-elevation wet zone forest reserve: A comparison of methods. BSc. thesis, Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya.
  • Sandanayake, S.D.K.C. 2010. Resource selection of leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya): A case study in the Dunumadallawa watershed forest, Hantane Region, Kandy. BSc. thesis, Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya.
  • Kumara, P.H..S. Chanaka. 2009. A study of the food habits of the leopard in selected habitats in the upcountry wet zone of Sri Lanka. BSc. thesis, Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya.
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